Species Names and Descriptions
Binomial names and authorities for species are those cited as current by ITIS (Canada). A link to this site is given on each species page to facilitate looking up synonyms for the species and other details about its taxonomic status.
A brief description is given for each species. Comments about the distribution, time of flowering and habitat of species in Nova Scotia are based on The Flora of Nova Scotia, 3rd Ed. (Roland et al., 1998) unless otherwise stated; The Flora should be consulted for details.
Comments about the distribution of a species within North America and its conservation status in various states and provinces are based on information provided by NatureServe Explorer.
Comments about the vegetative and reproductive characteristics, diagnostic features and range are based on a number of text and web accessible sources (below) but are not specifically referenced unless quoted directly, or unless a lesser known aspect of the species is cited, e.g., as might be reported in a recent scientific paper.
The descriptions are not intended to be comprehensive. Links to selected web resources are given on most species pages.
Please advise us of any errors and of web sources or other information that you think would be appropriate to consult. See also the Taxonomy/Ecology Links page.
Text sources routinely consulted for species descriptions
- Britton, N.L. & A. Brown 1913. An illustrated flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, NY.
- Campbell, C.S., F. Hyland and M.L.F. Campbell. 1975. Winter key to woody plants of Maine. University of Maine Press, Orono, Maine.
- Case, F.W. Jr. 1987. Orchids of the western Great Lakes region. Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 48.
- Gray, A. 1887. Gray's Lessons in botany. Revised Edition: The elements of botany for begnners and for schools. American Book Company. New York, Cincinnati, Chicago,
- Farrar, J. 1996. Trees in Canada. Fitzhenry and Whiteside Ltd. and the Canadian Forest Service of Natural Resources Canada. 1996.
- Fielding, R.R. 1998. Shrubs of Nova Scotia. A guide to native shrubs, small trees and woody vines. Nimbus Publishing and the Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources.
- Hinds, H.R. 2000. Flora of New Brunswick (2nd ed.) University of New Brunswick Press, Fredericton, N.B.
- Roland, A.E & Smith, E.C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. The Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax, Nova Scotia. This flora is a compilation of two issues of the Proceedings of the Nova Scotian Institute of Science :
- Roland, A.E. & Smith, E.C. (1963-1964). The flora of Nova Scotia. Part I. The Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Monocotyledons. Proceedings of the Nova Scotian Institute of Science, 26 (2), 3-238.
- Roland, A.E. & Smith, E.C. (1969). The flora of Nova Scotia. Part II. The Dicootyledons. Proceedings of the Nova Scotian Institute of Science, 26 (4), 277-743.
- Roland, A.E., Zinck, M. & Owen, E. (1998). Roland's flora of Nova Scotia, 3rd Ed. Halifax: Nimbus & Nova Scotia Museum.
- Simpson, M.G. 2006. Plant systematics. Elsevier.
Web accessible sources routinely consulted for species descriptions
- E.C. Smith Herbarium: Irving Biodiversity Collection. Acadia University, Sponsor. [Accessed 12 Nov. 2007.]
- Flora of North America. Flora of North America Association, Sponsor. [Accessed 12 Nov. 2007.]
Fire Effects Information System.. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Sponsor. [Accessed 12 Nov. 2007.]
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Canada: Biological Name Search. Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Sponsor. [Accessed 12 Nov. 2007.]
- NatureServe Explorer. An Online Encyclopedia of Life. NatureServe, Sponsor. [Accessed 12 Nov. 2007.]
- Plants Database. U.S.D.A. Natural Resources Conservation Service, Sponsor. [Accessed 12 Nov. 2007.]
- Robert W. Freckmann Herbarium. University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point, Sponsor. [Accessed 12 Nov. 2007.]